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How to Cook Quinoa

The question of how to cook quinoa elicits strong opinions from those who make it often. Find the way that matches your taste preference and cooking style and go for it. 

Pre-toast? Some cooks swear by pre-toasting the quinoa. It’s worth a try if you are a quinoa fan or didn’t like quinoa the first time you tried it. 

Soak and/or rinse? Some people claim that you have to soak and/or rinse quinoa to get rid of the “saponin,” the natural coating that protects quinoa seeds from pests in the field. According to many, the saponin lends a stronger, sometimes bitter flavor to the quinoa. A lot of quinoa is pre-rinsed, including the kind found in bulk sections of grocery stores. (Note that pre-toasting and soaking shouldn’t be combined. One or the other.)

Amounts.The quinoa will about triple in size, so start with one-third of the final amount of cooked quinoa you want. Cooked quinoa also freezes well, so you might want to make a good amount and freeze it in 1- or 2-cup amounts.

Soak, rinse, and stovetop. Soak the quinoa in plenty of water for at least 30 minutes, up to 24 hours. Drain and rinse the quinoa using a mesh strainer. Put the quinoa in a saucepan with as much water as the amount of dry quinoa you started with (e.g., 1 cup), plus a little salt, bring to a boil, turn down the heat, cover the pot, and simmer about 10 minutes. 

Pre-toast, rinse and stovetop. Pre-toast the dry quinoa (or skip this step) by pouring the measured dry quinoa into a sauté pan or skillet and turning on the heat to medium-low. Within a couple of minutes the quinoa starts to smell a bit like popcorn and begins popping. Once it pops a minute or two, take it off the heat. Then rinse thequinoa using a mesh strainer (or you can skip this step too). Put the quinoa in a saucepan with twice the amount of water as the amount of dry quinoa (e.g., 1 cup quinoa, 2 cups water), plus a little salt, bring to a boil, turn down the heat, cover the pot, and simmer for 15 minutes, then turn off the heat, keep the cover on, and let the quinoa sit for 10 minutes. 

Instant Pot or other pressure cooker.Rinse the quinoa if desired. Optional to spray the insert pot with spray oil to keep the quinoa from sticking to the pot. For each cup of quinoa, use 1.5 cups water. Put them (and a little salt) in the pot, lock the lid and set the steam valve to the “sealing” position. Select “MANUAL” button and cook for 1 minute on high pressure. Allow the pressure to release naturally for 10 minutes and then release any remaining pressure. 

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What is Xanthan Gum?

Xanthan gum is used in many manufactured food products because it helps thicken foods and keep ingredients blended while they sit on the shelf. Salad dressings, ice creams, and yogurt are commonly made with this ingredient.

It’s popular in gluten-free baking circles, too, because it provides elasticity and stickiness in doughs that don’t contain gluten.

Invented in the 1960s, xanthan gum is made by fermenting sucrose, glucose, and lactose with a bacteria, Xanthomonas campestris, then drying the mixture and grinding it into a fine white powder.

You can find xanthan gum in some supermarkets’ bulk sections, allowing you to buy just a little at a time. It’s also sold in packages by Bob’s Red Mill and others. Bob’s is vegan—check the label to be sure.

I use xanthan gum in egg substitutes, such as Baked Indian Fritters.

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What is “Nutrient Density”?

 Examples of nutrient density scores. 70 calories of each food is shown here.

Examples of nutrient density scores. 70 calories of each food is shown here.

“Nutrient Density” refers to the ratio between the amount of beneficial nutrients in a food and its caloric content. Foods high in nutrients (like antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, fiber) and low in calories get a high (favorable) nutrient density score, while foods low in nutrients and high in calories get a low (bad) score. 

The gold medalists

There is no single authoritative nutrient density scale, but all of the systems I’ve seen, whether on a 1 - 100 or 1 - 1000 scale, arrive at similar findings. When you look at the leaderboards, the powerhouses are always dark leafy greens like kale, chard, collard greens, and spinach. Dark leafy greens are low in calories and contain many antioxidants, calcium, nitrates, carotenoids and other phytonutrients. 

Also on the platform

Other low-calorie, nutrient-rich vegetables follow, such as romaine and Boston lettuce, broccoli, artichoke, and cabbage. Some rankings might surprise you. Even whole foods like bananas, nuts, avocados, and brown rice rank low on nutrient density scales because of their calorie count—i.e., you can get equivalent amounts of nutrients in foods that are much lower in calories. 

The losers

Not surprisingly, fast food, processed food, oils, sugary foods, meats, dairy, and eggs are low on all nutrient density scales. 

Why getting lots of nutrients matters

Most Americans believe that lots of protein and low levels of fat and carbs are the keys to health and slimness. The obesity rate in the U.S. would suggest that these beliefs are not working. In reality, a focus on whole foods high in nutrients (vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals, and other amazing micro-nutrients) would help improve our health. Nutrients help the body function properly, including the immune system and cellular repair mechanisms, which protect us from chronic diseases. People who call themselves “nutritarians” focus on eating as high on the nutrient density scale as possible.

For more information

Dr. Joel Fuhrman, MD, is the best known proponent of nutritarianism and the person who coined the term. He offers books, welcome kits, checklists, and cookbooks. You can download a .pdf copy of Dr. Fuhrman’s nutrient density chart

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What is “Caloric Density”?

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If you don’t have to watch your weight, you can ignore this post. For the rest of us, the 99%, “caloric density” matters. 

Caloric density is the concentration of calories in a food, essentially the relationship between the food’s calories and its weight. Some foods have many more calories per ounce than others. For example, 

  • Vegan chocolate cake – 93 calories per ounce (1488 per pound)

  • Fresh apple – 14 calories per ounce (224 per pound)

Big difference, yeah. But we all could have guessed that one.

Some otherwise healthy plant-based foods are relatively calorie-dense. 

  • Oat bran bagel – 71 calories per ounce (1136 per pound)

  • Raisins – 84 calories per ounce (1344 per pound) (not too far off the chocolate cake)

  • Dry roasted mixed nuts – 166 calories per ounce (2656 per pound) (almost doublethe chocolate cake!) 

Fruits and vegetables

Fruits and vegetables have the lowest caloric density, as we see from the apple example. Fruits and vegetables tend to have high water content, high fiber content, and low fat content. This means they provide a lot of bulk without a lot of calories. 

Grains

Grains are higher in caloric density than the majority of fruits and vegetables. Whole-grain and refined grains don’t differ much in calories, but whole grains offer more fiber, which slows the movement of food through your system. Fiber also regulates sugar levels and helps keep you fuller longer. 

Oils

Oils and butter are the most calorie-dense foods. Oil is 100% fat, and butter (even vegan butter) is nearly that, too. 

  • Olive oil – 248 calories per ounce (3968 per pound)

Avoiding hunger pangs

Caloric density matters if you want to avoid hunger pangs. Eating lots of fruits and vegetables means you can eat more and feel fuller. But you can’t live on fruits and vegetables alone—you need protein and grains too. Tilting the balance toward fresh fruits and vegetables and trying to include them in every meal and snack will help you feel satisfied. 

Using dried fruit and nuts between meals to stave off hunger can be dangerous if you really do need to watch your weight. They are deceptively high in calories, even though they are much healthier for you than chocolate cake. 

For more information

If you want a visual representation of the caloric density of dozens of foods, download this chart

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What is Miso?

What is Miso?

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My first “miso moment” came as I was searching for a vegan pesto recipe. I wondered if there could really be a substitute for the salty, earthy, slightly tangy undertones of parmesan cheese. The pesto recipe in The Candle Café Cookbook called for one tablespoon of sweet white miso along with basil, oil, nuts, and garlic. I was desperate to find a solution to my pesto problem, so I drove to the nearest natural food store and wandered the aisles until I found miso. The result was an epiphany! The pesto was as good as any I’d ever eaten. I was smitten. I’ve since tweaked Candle Café’s approach and created my own Gracious Vegan Basil Pesto recipe. Of course, the  irreplaceable miso is still there. 
 
Miso basics. Miso is a paste made from infusing soybeans with a mold called koji. The mixture (with salt added) is fermented for weeks, months, or even years, and the enzymes in the koji break the beans down into a thick paste. Traditional miso is made from soy, but miso can also be made from barley, rice, or other grains. Japan is the birthplace of miso, and the paste’s history goes back thousands of years. 
 
What miso tastes like. Miso is not spicy-hot at all. It has a salty, earthy flavor. There are many kinds and colors of miso, so you might hear about “red miso,” “white miso,” or “barley miso.”Generally speaking, the lighter the color of the miso, the lighter and sweeter the taste. Red and brown misos are the tangiest, with a deep earthy (or umami) flavor. If you’re reluctant to try new things like miso, start with white miso. 
 
How to find miso. Most large grocery stores stock small white plastic tubs of miso near the tofu, dairy substitutes, and vegetarian meats. Asian grocers often carry a larger variety of miso, some in sealed plastic bags or clear plastic tubs.
 
How to store miso. Miso keeps a long time, like most fermented foods. It can last 9-12 months in the refrigerator in a container with a tight lid. 
 
What to make with miso. Miso is not meant to be eaten straight out of the container. The most common use of miso is miso soup. It can also star in gravy, stir-fry sauces, and as part of a paste for broiling tofu. Here are two of my favorite dishes with a healthy dose of miso: Candle-Café-Inspired Stir Fry and Creamy Broccoli Soup
 
As in my pesto recipe, miso can also be a small but foundational ingredient in vegan cheeses (see my Gracious Vegan Parmesan Cheese and the Mascarpone in my Rich and Creamy Vegan Tiramisu).
 
Don’t boil miso if you can help it. The healthy probiotics that miso contains (because of the fermentation process) can be broken down in boiling liquids, so it’s important to heat foods containing miso just until hot, not to the boiling point. 
 
Miso’s nutrients. Although miso has a relatively high level of sodium (200-300 milligrams per teaspoon), recent research has shown that miso does not seem to affect our cardiovascular system in the way that other high-sodium foods can. Miso contains copper, manganese, Vitamin K, and a number of phytonutrients that nutritionists are just starting to understand. 
 
There appear to be only upsides to eating miso. Given how its unique flavor adds a flavor bump to all sorts of dishes, it’s worth a try if you don’t use it already.

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What is Tempeh?

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Tempeh—like tofu and seitan—is one of those foods you might be reluctant to try. It seems a bit risky, right? What’s inside that rectangular, bumpy, vacuum-sealed package? 

How it’s pronounced. It’s pronounced “tem-pay” with both syllables accented equally. It’s a great source of protein: about 18 grams of protein per serving, about the same as a breakfast of two eggs and two strips of turkey bacon.  It’s also high in fiber, calcium, and iron and is free of cholesterol.

How it’s made. Tempeh originated in Indonesia and is made from soybeans. The soybeans are partially cooked then fermented. This controlled fermentation process binds the soybeans together into a cake form. Some tempeh is made with added whole grains (e.g., “5-Grain Tempeh”). Tempeh’s flavor has been described as nutty, and its texture as chewy—some say it’s meaty. Like tofu, it picks up the flavors of whatever it’s cooked with. 

How it’s used. Some cooks use thin slabs of tempeh for sandwiches. The tempeh is often steamed or boiled first to loosen up its texture, then either fried, sautéed, or added to a dish. Diced or grated tempeh is used in chili, stir-fries, soups, salads, and stews. 

Why I like it. I really like tempeh because of its texture, which is firmer and chewier than tofu. It doesn’t have a strong taste on its own, which means it goes with everything—the little black dress of the soybean world. For a few recipes and menu ideas with tempeh, see these tempeh posts and recipes on my website. If you like those, explore the internet for many more. 

Tempeh freezes well and is available at health food stores, Trader Joes, and in many supermarkets. 

Tempeh photo by SalTheColourGeek on Flickr

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How is Tofu Made?

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A lot of people who eat tofu don't know how it's made. Don't worry -- it's not gross! 

I watched all the available videos about this on Youtube (so you don't have to!) and found a favorite. A bit more than 3 minutes long, it's worth it if you're curious. 

How to Make Tofu by Food Factory.

Enjoy!

Photo by Jules on Flickr

 

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What is Seitan?

(Psst! It's pronounced say-TAN.)

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Seitan is an excellent source of protein. It has over twice the protein of tofu, 50% more than beef, and the same amount as a cup of cooked lentils. Its texture is dense and chewy, which is why a lot of plant-based cooks use seitan as a meat substitute. Another nice thing about seitan is that it’s already cooked, making it very easy to work with.

Origins in China

Seitan’s origins date back to ancient China. It was made by creating a dough of flour and water, then rinsing the dough in water until the starch and bran washed away. All that remained were the gluten proteins, which made a stiff, elastic dough. This dough was simmered in a broth, cut into bite-sized chunks, then usually fried or sautéed. The name for this is usually translated as “wheat meat” or “mock meat” in the U.S. 

Seitan’s emergence

Chinese mock meat is technically not seitan, which is a very similar wheat gluten product flavored with soy sauce. The name was coined around 1960 in Japan. Like Chinese mock meat, seitan is chewy, flavorful, and moist. 

Where to find it

You can find seitan in some grocery stores and in almost all natural food stores. You can also make seitan yourself using powdered vital wheat gluten. There are many recipes for homemade seitan. 

What to do with it

You can slice or chop seitan and use it in sauces or stir-fries. A search on the internet will turn up hundreds of recipes. I combined many of my favorite flavors in this recipe: Banh Mi Sandwiches with Seitan.

 

Photo of seitan stir-fry by John on flickr

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Food Preferences Survey and "Conversion Chart"

Download the survey in pdf format or Word format.  

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Download the conversion chart in pdf format or Word format

“I do not like them, Sam-I-am. I do not like green eggs and ham.” – Dr. Seuss

Just over three years ago, I asked my omnivore husband to try one vegan dinner a week. He agreed, but he warned that he wouldn’t eat what he didn’t like. Fair enough, I thought. With all the amazing vegan recipes I’d collected over the years, my cooking would be sure to please.
 
My veggie burgers worked in Week 1 — SCORE!  Falafel Salad and Yellow Thai Curry went well, too, in Weeks 2 and 3. But then things started to slide. Out of the next six weeks, he liked three. He rejected Pizza Bowls, Boeuf Bourgignon stew (with vegetarian “beef”), and Spaghetti with Vegetable Meatballs.
 
What was happening? Was he trying to sabotage my experiment so he could go back to meat? He isn’t that kind of guy. Plus about half the time everything was fine. I couldn’t figure out what was happening...couldn’t see a pattern. I didn’t know what else to do but keep making delicious dishes. It was a crap shoot, but what could I do?
 
The Spinach Epiphany.  It was spinach that finally clued me in. I noticed, at last, that no matter how I used spinach, or how sparsely, he would see it and wouldn’t eat it. Then I realized it was the same with olives. And chickpeas. And cooked carrots. And mushrooms, except when they were finely chopped. And forget about tofu or tempeh.
 
Doh! I was making things that looked delicious to me. I was completely ignoring any information about what he liked. When I went back to my notes of what I’d made each week, sure enough, it all made sense. He didn’t like the South Indian Curry, White Pizza, or Vegan Turnovers, all of which were loaded with spinach. He didn’t like the Deli-Style Chickpea Salad or Deborah Madison’s Chickpeas with Pasta. Interestingly, he never said anything like, “I don’t like spinach! Enough already!”—that would have helped. Maybe he didn’t realize it himself?
 
And the pattern went beyond individual foods and ingredients. When I made vegan versions of dishes he liked—enchiladas, tacos, pizza, Thai curry—my record was almost 100% positive. If I started with a dish he’d never tried or didn’t like in omnivore versions— eggplant parmesan, sloppy joes, stroganoff, bowls—chances of success were near zero. It seems obvious now.
 
Research Studies. In the last year I’ve read a lot of research on food preferences. My husband’s responses to my cooking mirror their results. People’s likes and dislikes develop and evolve over their lifetimes, but at any given moment they’re strong. Food is a major source of pleasure for most of us. If a dish looks dangerous or unpleasant—because of a disliked ingredient, or it looks too healthy, or it’s unfamiliar—we fear we'll be disappointed. And many studies have shown that once we expect not to like something, we usually don’t.
 
So if you’re trying to make meatless food appealing to someone, it’s important to make it consistent with their likes.
 
Food preference survey to the rescue. I don’t want it to take other cooks one or two years to figure out the best plant-based dishes for their spouses, partners, children, or other omnivores of interest.  So I’ve developed two tools. The first is a food survey covering many different dishes and ingredients. It’s like the surveys personal chefs give their clients at the beginning of an engagement. The survey covers familiar dishes from a variety of cuisines as well as individual ingredients. Download the survey document in pdf format or Word format.  

Meatless versions of dishes they love. The second tool is a “conversion chart.” It follows the same order as the preference survey and then links to recipes for plant-based versions of the dishes. It provides ideas for side dishes to go with the entrees. There are also links to recipes that make prominent use of individual vegetables, beans, and meat substitutes, so you can take advantage of any of your loved one’s favorite individual foods. Download the conversion chart in pdf format or Word format

I hope these tools are useful to you. I’d love to hear about your experiences. Please write to me via email or comment on Facebook or on the site. Good luck!

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Food Neophobia? Yes, It’s a Thing

When you’re trying to get loved ones to eat your meatless dishes, we all know you have to meet them partway. If one or more of them is a food neophobe, you’ll have to be even more careful and strategic. Food neophobes may decide they don’t like a dish even before they taste it, because they’re automatically averse to any unfamiliar food. But many food neophobes want to eat less meat. If you can find the narrow path to lead him or her to new meatless favorites, you will both have reason to be proud. 

Are You or Someone You Know a Food Neophobe?

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If you’re old enough, you might remember Mikey from the Life cereal commercial of 1972. His brother says, “I’m not gonna try it. Let’s get Mikey. Yeah, he won’t eat it. He hates everything!” (Watch the ad). Perhaps you’re not as bad as Mikey, but you like what you like, and you don’t appreciate other people pushing you to try things you’re not interested in.  Or are you on the opposite end with Anthony Bourdain? He’s the Food Network personality who travels the world in quest of culinary adventure, eating ant eggs, sheep testicles, and cobra hearts. Maybe you’re not the ant-egg-eating type, but you like trying a new dish on the menu, you jump at the chance to visit a new restaurant, or you lose hours on the internet picking new recipes to put on your stack.

If you or someone you know is more like Mikey, it may be a case of food neophobia. It’s a real thing, validated by years of research.

For people who are reluctant to try new foods, it’s not just at the moment of tasting that the dislike occurs. Hearing an unfamiliar dish name, reading about unusual ingredients, skimming a description of an untried food, or just looking at a new dish can all elicit a prediction of dislike. (My husband, Doug—a confirmed food neophobe—once said about a soup, “If I ate with a blindfold on, this would be better.”)  It’s often hard to tell whether a food neophobe’s dislike of a dish is because of the taste, or whether it’s a self-fulfilling prophecy, a conscious or sub-conscious justification of the pre-tasting judgment. Fortunately, there are things you can do to successfully introduce new ingredients to a food neophobe, and I have some tips below.

Find out if you or someone you know is a food neophobe.

Take the test here (it requires only a few minutes).

Can Food Neophobia be Changed?

Food neophobia appears to be hard-wired in a similar way to personality traits. In one study of female twins, the results suggested that food neophobia is highly heritable: around 67% may be due to genes.  Like personality traits (extraversion, conscientiousness, etc.), food neophobia can be changed, but only to a degree. Increased exposure to new foods can lower the level of one’s food neophobia. But more experience with unfamiliar foods doesn’t completely counterbalance an innate and instinctive aversion to new foods, no more than learning to speak in public turns an introvert into an extravert.

Cooking for a Food Neophobe

If you are someone who is trying to introduce more meatless dishes to your spouse, partner, and/or children, you might have an increased challenge if there’s a food neophobe under your roof. I’ve found the following six strategies to be helpful in planning and serving plant-based dishes to my husband and other family members who fall on the neophobic end of the scale.

Introduce a new food in the context of a familiar dish

For a food neophobe, if there’s anything worse than an unfamiliar ingredient in a meal or dish, it’s an unfamiliar ingredient in an unfamiliar meal or dish. I learned this the hard way with my husband. For example, I first tried Textured Vegetable Protein (TVP) in a new recipe: Mexican Pasta Skillet. After Doug roundly rejected it, I thought TVP would never work. But another time I tried TVP as the basis for a “meat” sauce to go on spaghetti, and he gobbled it up. The same thing happened with TVP tacos—no problem. Duh, he already loved spaghetti sauce and tacos, and he’d never had anything like a Mexican pasta dish.

Introduce only one new ingredient at a time

I’ve found the most success when Doug only has to confront one new ingredient at a time. Early on during our vegan dinner experiments, I thought I’d have an easy winner with vegan nachos. I made a “cheesy” vegan sauce from scratch and a taco-beef-like mixture made from meat crumbles. I piled the tortilla chips high and buried them in the taco mixture and cheesy sauce. Doug wanted to like them but couldn’t eat more than a few—too much change at one time for a food neophobe.

Make new food more enticing by serving it with a favorite side dish or sauce

Never underestimate how a favorite condiment or side dish can help a new dish go down. Doug loves mango chutney, sweet chili sauce, and ketchup, so I make sure to highlight the condiment when serving a not-yet-loved dish. Doug’s favorite side dishes work the same way. Roasted asparagus, baked French fries, fresh corn on the cob, and semi-homemade baked beans have all done their part to increase the acceptance of new ventures.

Give choices

Everyone tends to like a dish better if they’ve had a voice in choosing it. When possible, let them decide on broccoli or cauliflower, green or fruit salad, lentil or split pea soup, these leftovers or those tonight? There is a subtle shift of ownership to the person making the decision, and he or she is likely to be more pleased by the meal than otherwise.

Repeat dishes that were acceptable so that they become favorites

I made the mistake early on of trying one new dish after another, without repeating any of the new dishes for months. Sometimes when we had a new dish a second time many months later, Doug rejected it. I eventually figured out that I needed to repeat any new dish that he liked within a month in order to lock it into his memory as safe and tasty.

Don’t say too much about the dish beforehand, and don’t be defensive or preachy

I recommend saying as little as possible about what’s in the new dish unless specifically asked—give it a nickname (“Dad’s New Enchilada Casserole”) instead of a clinical name (“Tofu-Quinoa-Poblano Enchilada Casserole”). You can cite someone’s praise about the taste of dish, or lightly talk about its healthiness, but don’t come on too strong. Perhaps the hardest rule of thumb is accepting the rejection of new dishes by your resident neophobe. It’s so tempting to whine, “But you love peanut butter! This sauce is mostly peanut butter; it’s on top of broccoli and rice, and you like those too!” Reasonable argument, but the neophobe is not responding to food on the basis of reason. I’ve found that no amount of arguing changes my husband’s mind once he’s decided. And the debating can make meal time more fraught with anxiety in the future. Better to calmly note the dislike and move on. Use your energy on figuring out how to win your neophobe over to the next dish.

Keep at it

The keys are persistence, baby steps, and understanding. If you’re cooking for a food neophobe, remember that somewhere deep in their brain is a strong distrust of new food—it’s part of their survival instinct. You can coax them to like new meatless dishes, and when you do, the accomplishment will be all the sweeter.

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Differences between Indian and Thai Curries

Viva la difference

Many of us love curries of all kinds. But when you stop and focus on the differences between Indian and Thai curries, you realize they're quite different, but in a good way. Some of the differences can influence your meal planning--e.g., Thai curries can be made more quickly than Indian, meaning they might be better when you don't have much time. 

Indian curries

  • Dry spices (coriander, turmeric, cumin, cardamom, black mustard, dried chilies, etc.)

  • More like a stew than a soup

  • Simmered longer

  • Served with basmati rice

 

Thai curries

  • Fresh herbs and chilies (lemongrass, galangal, garlic, shallot, kaffir lime leaves, cilantro stems, etc.)

  • More like a soup than a stew (coconut milk)

  • Shorter cooking time

  • Served with jasmine rice

Make some!

Here are two classic curries, Indian Eggplant, Chickpea, and Spinach Curry and Gracious Vegan Green or Red Thai Curry. Enjoy!

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The Food Neophobia Scale

Please see my blog "Yup, Food Neophobia is a Thing" for an introduction to food neophobia and the implications for home cooks trying to get loved ones to eat more meatless meals. 

The Food Neophobia Scale (FNS) was first published with its background and validation evidence in 1992. Since that time it has been used as the standard measure of food neophobia in hundreds of studies. (Pliner, Patricia, and Karen Hobden. "Development of a scale to measure the trait of food neophobia in humans." Appetite 19.2 (1992): 105-120.)

It can be taken and scored in a few minutes. Circle your answer, then add up the corresponding points. (See what your results mean at the bottom of this post.)

1.       I am constantly sampling new and different foods

5  Disagree strongly

4  Disagree moderately

3  Neither agree nor disagree

2  Agree moderately

1  Agree strongly

2.       I don’t trust new foods.

1  Disagree strongly

2  Disagree moderately

3  Neither agree nor disagree

4  Agree moderately

5  Agree strongly

3.       If I don’t know what is in a food, I won’t try it.

1  Disagree strongly

2  Disagree moderately

3  Neither agree nor disagree

4  Agree moderately

5  Agree strongly

4.       I like foods from different countries

5  Disagree strongly

4  Disagree moderately

3  Neither agree nor disagree

2  Agree moderately

1  Agree strongly

5.       Ethnic food looks too weird to eat.

1  Disagree strongly

2  Disagree moderately

3  Neither agree nor disagree

4  Agree moderately

5  Agree strongly

6.       At dinner parties, I will try a new food

5  Disagree strongly

4  Disagree moderately

3  Neither agree nor disagree

2  Agree moderately

1  Agree strongly

7.       I am afraid to eat things I have never had before

1  Disagree strongly

2  Disagree moderately

3  Neither agree nor disagree

4  Agree moderately

5  Agree strongly

8.       I am very particular about the foods I will eat

1  Disagree strongly

2  Disagree moderately

3  Neither agree nor disagree

4  Agree moderately

5  Agree strongly

9.       I will eat almost anything

5  Disagree strongly

4  Disagree moderately

3  Neither agree nor disagree

2  Agree moderately

1  Agree strongly

10.   I like to try new ethnic restaurants.

5  Disagree strongly

4  Disagree moderately

3  Neither agree nor disagree

2  Agree moderately

1  Agree strongly

Your total = _________

More than 20 points means that you are a food neophobe.

20 or fewer points mean you are in the food neophile category.

 

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Amla Powder, Antioxidant Powerhouse

Amla (Indian gooseberry) powder benefits

In a recent test of 3,000 different foods, Indian gooseberries emerged as the number-one antioxidant-rich food -- ahead of goji berries, raisins, acai berries, and anything else you can think of that might be at the top of the rankings. Check out this video for the details.

Anti-inflammatory too

Amla is also anti-inflammatory and, in one study, it reduced and reversed cancer cell growth in vitro. It can help normalize blood sugar levels in diabetes patients, and it’s high in vitamin C. 

Inexpensive and easy to use

And did I mention it’s cheap? I bought a 12-ounce bag of amla powder a month ago for $13 on Amazon, and we use 1 teaspoon a day in smoothies. It has a slightly bitter taste, but that gets counteracted in smoothies or sweet baked dishes like custards or pumpkin pies. For a smoothie with more antioxidants in one serving than most people get in a week, try my "How Not to Die" Pumpkin Smoothie.

You can also buy amla powder in capsule form. 

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Myths about Protein Combining

About 40 years ago, someone came up with the theory that plant-based proteins were incomplete and that vegetarians had to eat “complementary proteins” during the same meal, for example, rice and beans, or tofu and sesame seeds. This fallacy was refuted decades ago, but the myth persists.

It turns out our body maintains pools of free amino acids that it can use to do all the complementing for us. Some 90 grams of protein are dumped into the digestive tract every day from our own body to get broken back down and reassembled, and so our body can mix and match amino acids to whatever proportions we need.

Plant-based eaters do not need to be concerned about amino acid imbalances from plant proteins. For more information, see this video on Nutritionfacts.org.

 

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Invaluable Vegan Ingredient: Cashews

Cashews as Substitute for Cream and Cream Cheese

If you haven’t tried using cashews as a substitute for cream, you’re missing out on a healthy, tasty substitute. “Cashew cream” took the plant-based cooking world by storm about a decade ago and is still a fantastic way to please the palate while foregoing unhealthy dairy fat. Cashews can also substitute for cream cheese in dishes like Chili Rellenos, artichoke-spinach dip, and even cheesecake.

Cashew Cream Recipes

Here are some of the cashew-based recipes or links available on the site:

Gracious Vegan Creamy Tomato Sauce

Creamy Roasted Tomato Vodka Sauce

Creamy Artichoke Spinach Dip

Cashew Cheese Chili Rellenos

Vegan Penne Pasta Casserole

7 Ingredient Vegan Cheesecake

Cashew milk (Silk brand) is also a great substitute for cow's milk—it’s what got my husband off dairy. It’s thicker than most non-dairy milks. “Original” Silk cashew milk has only 25 calories a cup. We like So Delicious brand: 40 calories a cup and thicker.

 

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Invaluable Vegan Ingredient: Lentils

Lentils are one of the fastest cooking legumes (they’re tender in 20-25 minutes), they go well with lots of other foods, and they're super-healthy. Lentils are an excellent source of fiber, protein, iron, zinc, antioxidants, and folate. A diet rich in lentils and other legumes may help reduce cholesterol, hypertension, and the risk of prediabetes.

Check out these recipe recommendations for delicious lentil recipes.

 

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Invaluable Vegan Ingredient: Flaxseed Meal

Flaxseed meal is more of a silent partner than a big bold star in vegan cooking. It’s one of the most commonly recommended vegan egg substitutes in baking, because if you mix flaxseed meal (1 Tablespoon) and water (3 Tablespoons) and let it sit a few minutes, the mixture takes on the viscous consistency of an egg. You can also add a tablespoon of flaxseed meal to smoothies or oatmeal, or more than that to soups. Flaxseed meal occasionally takes a leading role: have a look at these Flax Peanut Butter Crispy Bars

The reason to find ways to eat flaxseed meal is that it’s so nutritious. This WebMD article tells you more. The fiber, antioxidants, and Omega-3 fatty acids are just some of the great nutrients in flaxseed meal. 

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Invaluable Vegan Ingredient: Tahini

Tahini is a thick sauce made from toasted, hulled, ground sesame seeds. Sesame seeds are very nutritious, providing phytonutrients such as omega-6 fatty acids, flavonoid phenolic anti-oxidants, vitamins, and dietary fiber.

  • Those of us who love falafel know “tahini sauce”; it’s a mixture of tahini paste, lemon juice, garlic, and water.

  • My favorite oil-free salad dressing is Gracious Vegan Oil-Free Tahini Dressing, where the tahini provides a creaminess that’s similar to ranch dressing.

  • Tahini is also a star in many dips, such as Real Simple's Red Pepper, Walnut, and Tahini Dip.

 

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Invaluable Vegan Ingredient: Vegetable Broth Powder

I cook a lot of soups—I love homemade soups. But I don’t have time to make homemade vegetable broth. The prices of canned and packaged broth put me off, because I use so much. What works for me is powdered broth. I use Seitenbacher’s Vegetable Broth and Seasoning, which is easy to buy on Amazon (I recently bought a six-pack). It seems expensive when you first buy it (over $4 for a 5-ounce can), but, at one teaspoon per cup for making broth, it lasts a long time. 

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Health Benefits of Sweet Potatoes

Sweet potatoes get major points for nutrition (not to mention taste and ease of preparation). They are an excellent source of three major vitamins (Vitamins B6, C, and D) as well as iron, magnesium, and potassium. Their natural sugars release slowly rather than causing blood-sugar spikes. They’re also high in carotenoids like beta carotene, which are important for eye and skin health and associated with lower risk of cancer. (This is where they differ most with yams, which have lower levels of carotenoids.) The dietary fiber provided by one serving is approximately the same as oatmeal. Unless you slather them in marshmallows or too much brown sugar, the more sweet potatoes, the better. 

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